PERSEPOLIS: película de animación que critica régimen autoritario musulmán desde perspectiva de izquierda.
Se puede ver la pelicula en El Polvorín en Video: Persepolis
PERSEPOLIS is a French-language autobiographical comic by Marjane Satrapi depicting her childhood up to her early adult years in Iran during and after the Islamic revolution. Iranian film, critiquing an authoritarian regime from a leftist point of view
Historia autobiográfica de la iraní Marjane Satrapi, educada al estilo occidental dentro de una familia de clase alta y por unos padres de ideología progresista y partidarios del laicismo, "Marji" (como se le conoce al principio de la historia) también tiene una considerable inquietud intelectual para una niña de su edad y notable imaginación que la lleva a mantener conversaciones con Dios -al que encuentra un curioso parecido con Karl Marx- o soñar con llegar a ser algún día la última profeta que siga los pasos de Jesús y Mahoma.
PERSEPOLIS es el título de una novela gráfica en blanco y negro escrita e ilustrada en forma autobiográfica por Marjane Satrapi (Rasht, Irán, 1969). Consta de cuatro tomos, aunque también se publica un volumen integral que contiene los cuatro libros.
Primera edición 2000-2003
Editorial L'Association (Collection Ciboulette)
Persépolis es la historia autobiográfica de la iraní Marjane Satrapi, la historia de cómo creció en un regimen fundamentalista islámico que la acabaría llevando a abandonar su país. El cómic empieza a partir del año 1979, cuando Marjane tiene diez años y desde su perspectiva infantil es testigo de un cambio social y político que pone fin a más de cincuenta años de reinado del sha de Persia en Irán y da paso a una república islámica.
Además de diferenciarse de los demás niños por haber sido educada al estilo occidental dentro de una familia de clase alta y por unos padres de ideología progresista y partidarios del laicismo, "Marji" (como la conoceremos al principio de la historia) también tiene una considerable inquietud intelectual para una niña de su edad y notable imaginación que la lleva a mantener conversaciones con Dios -al que encuentra un curioso parecido con Karl Marx- o soñar con llegar a ser algún día la última profeta que siga los pasos de Jesús y Mahoma.
La historia de unos antepasados ilustres (su bisabuelo fue el último rey de la dinastía persa de los Qadjar), una familia que se opone activamente al gobierno del Sha, las manifestaciones, la diferencia de clases sociales o la marginación de la niña son algunas de las piezas del puzzle que Marji se esfuerza por componer con la intención de comprender el mundo que la rodea. Al tiempo que va creciendo, Marjane se da cuenta de que el nuevo régimen por el que lucharon sus padres ha caído en manos de los integristas y que no trae consigo nada bueno.
En el segundo tomo, la situación es cada vez más difícil. Muchos conocidos de la familia son torturados o asesinados, y los padres de Marjane deciden enviar a su hija al Liceo francés en Austria. El libro termina con una Marjane de catorce años despidiéndose de sus padres y su abuela en el aeropuerto.
El tercer libro nos cuenta las vivencias de Marjane Satrapi en Austria, cómo tiene que adaptarse a un "mundo nuevo", sus primeras relaciones sentimentales y los prejuicios y el desconocimiento que tienen sus compañeros hacia su cultura y su país.
En el cuarto y último libro, Marjane vuelve a su país de origen después de cuatro años viviendo en Viena. Aquí es cuando descubre el rechazo que causa entre sus antiguas amistades por sus vivencias en Occidente. Más tarde vemos como encuentra su lugar allí, realiza sus estudios y consigue encontrar un grupo de gente más acorde con su estilo de vida. El libro termina con la decisión de Marjane Satrapi de dejar de nuevo su país de origen y emigrar a Francia.
- Prix du Lion, Bélgica 2000.
- Premio autor revelación, Angoulême 2001.
- Premio al mejor guión, Angoulême 2002.
- Primer premio de la paz Fernando Buesa Blanco, Vitoria 2003.
- Premio Harvey a la mejor obra extranjera, EEUU 2004.
El 27 de junio de 2007 se estrenó la película basada en la novela gráfica Persépolis, una película de animación dirigida por Vincent Paronnaud y producida por Xavier Rigault y Marc-Antoine Robert. La película, con música de Olivier Bernet, obtuvo una nominación a la Palma de Oro y consiguió el Premio del jurado en el Festival de Cannes 2007. También consiguió el Premio Especial del Jurado en el Festival Internacional de Cine Cinemanila y en el año 2008, fue nominada a Mejor película animada en la Entrega de los Oscar.
- Guía del cómic: Persépolis
- IMDB: Ficha de la película
- Página oficial de la película (español)
- Original crítica novela gráfica (español)
PERSEPOLIS is a French-language autobiographical comic by Marjane Satrapi depicting her childhood up to her early adult years in Iran during and after the Islamic revolution. The title is a reference to the ancient capital of the Persian Empire, Persepolis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persepolis_(graphic_novel)
Drawn in black and white, the graphic novel found great popularity following its release, and was translated into several languages. The English edition combines the first two French books and was translated by Blake Ferris and Satrapi's husband, Mattias Ripa. The French editions of Persepolis 3 and Persepolis 4 were combined into a single volume, Persepolis 2 for the United States market. In the U.S., the Persepolis series is published by Pantheon Books.
In 2007, an animated film adaptation of the graphic novel was created, with author Satrapi co-directing with French comic artist Vincent Paronnaud. The film utilized the same style of the graphic novel, although there are a handful of scenes in the present day that are shown in color, while the rest of the flashback events are illustrated in black and white, as in the novel. The film opened in various countries to critical acclaim and received an Oscar nomination for Best Animated Feature at the US Academy Awards.
Thursday, 28 August 2008
First film I've sat down and watched for over a month. This is a terrific and technically wonderful film. Indeed, it had the feel of a motion graphic novel.
Also, it seems to me that this is an extremely honest film, critiquing an authoritarian regime from a leftist point of view. That is a refreshing change from the imperialist ranting of the right and the abundant stereotypes we are served up about the 'Iranian People.'
Iran has suffered a great deal over the past fifty years or so, from both internal and external enemies. The film highlights this sense of frustration at being caught between western-backed dictatorships and the victorious and viscous Islamic republic. It also critiques western, liberal social mores, especially the freedoms we seem to take for granted. Marjane Satrapi has told her tale of how revolts can turn to nightmares (both personal and political) in a subtle and entertaining way.
Section 1 (the veil): The first section sets the tone for the rest of the book. Marjane is forced to wear a veil at school, and she doesn't know what to think about it. At the core of her being is religion. It was for this reason that she submits to the authority of her teachers, who have told her of the religious symbolism behind the veil. This first section introduces her conversations with God in which she is "told" many things, some of which are that she is the celestial light, God's "last and best choice" for a prophet.
Section 2 (the bicycle): After a brief talk with her friends, in which she learns that revolutions are like bicycles (if they're not in motion, they will stop working) she starts to read about revolutionaries such as Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Because of the constant misdeeds being committed by those who are in charge of the Iranian Police forces she decides that she wants to become a revolutionary like Che Guevara. Her parents, unwilling to allow their daughter to be put in danger, do not let her go to the protests.
Section 3 (the water cell): Although her parents protested every day, Marjane decided that she supported the king because he was chosen by God Himself (which was told to her by her teacher). Her dad tells her a story about how the king was really chosen, and it had nothing to do with God. After the first king was chosen, it was simply passed down from father to son. She is, of course, very excited to hear this. Her grandfather became the king's prime minister because he was well educated, but he was mistreated to the point of becoming a communist. She then learned from her mother that her grandfather was sent to prison. It was there that he lived the rest of his life under pain of torture. Marjane felt awful after hearing this and attempted to reconstruct one of her grandfather's tortures, being partially submerged in water for hours at a time, by staying in the tub for several hours.
Section 4 (Persepolis): Marjane's grandmother comes into town to visit and tells Marjane about the hardships and poverty of years past. She told of how she boiled water and pretended to be cooking to hide their poverty from the neighbors. They had no money because the Shah's father took everything they owned. Marjane then learned that although the father of the Shah was brutal, his son was ten times worse. It was because of this that her grandfather was forced to stay in prison. Marjane's father does not come home from taking pictures of the riot on time and after a few hours they start to get scared. Marjane is sure that her father has been shot, but just as she is losing hope her father walks through the door with a full report of the day's events. The crowd saw a man's body being carried out of the hospital, and moments later the protesters lifted him up on their shoulders and marched him through town as a martyr. It turns out that the man had died of cancer, but when the crowd hears this they continued to honor him and protest the king, although now they are joined by the man's widow.
Section 5 (The Letter): Marjane goes to a book signing of her favorite author, who she refers to as "a local Charles Dickens" he writes about children who are forced into labor at an early age. Marjane starts to think about it, and realizes that that is the reason that she is embarrassed about her father driving a Cadillac.
Section 6 (The Party) Marjane is becoming more aware of her political surroundings. She tells of the downfall of the shah and of how her parents had been protesting his reign like most Iranians. After the celebration the transition to a new government is further illustrated by Marjane as she tells of tearing the shah's photograph from her textbook and of how her friends treated the children of secret service members. Her mother lectures her on how she should be more forgiving. This makes her feel a need to apologize for her harsh actions.
Section 7 (The Heroes) Marjane tells of the release of the political prisoners after the fall of the shah. Her family knew two of the men released, Siamak Jari and Mohsen Shakiba. They arrive at her house and regale them with stories of their imprisonment. Marjane's parents forget to spare her this unfortunate story. The freed political prisoners tell of how they were tortured and of how their friends were killed. Laly, the daughter of Siamak, is very proud of her father. She makes Marjane feel bad by touting this fact in front of Marjane whenever she gets a chance.
Section 8 (Moscow) Still upset by how her father is no hero she makes up stories to help make her feel better. One day her parents tell her of her uncle Anoosh. He is a communist revolutionary and a hero in Marjane's eyes. He comes to visit and he tells her his story. He informs her of his uncle Fereydon and how he was killed by the shah. He tells her of how he himself went to the U.S.S.R. and married. After he divorced his wife he tried to re-enter Iran but was caught and imprisoned for nine years. This revelation makes Marjane proud to be related to Anoosh.
Section 9 (The Sheep) Marjane is under pressure from her family because she repeats fake statistics that she hear from the television. The creation of an Islamic Republic forced some of her friends leave Iran. A large portion of her family left the country shortly thereafter. Reports came in that Mohsen was killed by the new regime. As these similar stories come in, she is told by her parents that Anoosh has gone back to Moscow. Later on she learns that he was imprisoned. She is allowed to see him right before they execute him. The section ends with the beginning of the War.
Section 10 (The Trip) Marjane sees on the Television that the universities are being closed down by the new regime. Later her mother is insulted by the guardians of the regime. She is sick and lies in bed for days. The new rules changes their neighbors' outlooks on the religious ideals.
Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return
Section 1 (The Soup): Marjane has just arrived in Vienna. She starts at a boarding house run by nuns and wondering what her room mate, Lucia, will be like. She then says why she was at the boarding house and not with her mother's friend, ZoZo. She then tells what happened at Zozo's house. She didn't seem to like Marjane much and there was a lot of fighting between Zozo and her husband. Plus, her daughter, Shirin, isn't like Marjane remembers her and Marjane doesn't like the new Shirin. When she arrives at the boarding house, a nun shows her around. She then experiences the freedom she now has by going shopping for her own food. When she returns, she meets her roommate. Lucia speaks German so Marjane doesn't understand her until they were eating some soup and they found a way to communicate. The section ended by both girls watching a movie in the TV room and Marjane leaves.
Section 2 (Tunechi): Marjane starts the section with complaining about Lucia waking her up every morning at 6:30 with her hair dryer. A little after that, Marjane starts to make friends at school when she gets the highest grade on a math test. She also becomes very popular for her unflattering portraits of teachers. Later, she is introduced to people who become her friends. They talk about what they are going to do during their Christmas break, which makes Marjane feel left out because she doesn't celebrate Christmas and the Iranian New Year isn't until March. She goes back to her room and tells Lucia how she feels. Lucia offers to take her to her home town over the holiday to meet her parents. She went to the evening mass and had dinner with them.
Section 3 (Pasta): The next break, Marjane listens to her friends' plans for winter break and comes up with her own excuse for what she is going to do: read. She spends her break reading and eating pasta. One evening she makes a big potful of spaghetti and goes down to eat it in the public TV room at her boarding house. One of the nuns tells her off for eating out of a pot, and then insults her for being Iranian. Marjane talks back to the nun, and ends up getting kicked out of the boarding house. She says goodbye to Lucia and leaves. Marjane's friend Julie invites her to stay in her house with her and her mother.
Section 4 (The Pill): Marjane starts living with Julie and is disturbed by how disrespectful she is to her mother, whom Marjane respects. Marjane and Julie have a talk before bed, and Julie tells Marjane about her sexual endeavors, which Marjane is shocked by. Julie's mother goes on a business trip, and Julie has a party, but it is not what Marjane expects. Later that night, she hears Julie and her boyfriend having sex, and is appalled.
Section 5 (The Vegetable): Marjane discusses her changing physical appearance, and starts cutting her own hair, and even selling haircuts to the hall monitors at her school. Her friends, who think the hall monitors are conformists, are displeased. Marjane's friends begin to get into drug use, and Marjane pretends to participate, but doesn't. She begins to feel like she is betraying her Iranian heritage. Finally, she overhears some people in a cafe talking about how she's making her past up, and defends her culture, then feels like she has redeemed herself.
Section 6 (The Horse): Julie leaves Vienna, and Marjane starts staying in a communal apartment with eight homosexual men. Her mother surprises her by calling to say she is coming to visit, and arrives soon after. Marjane spends time with her mother and, because her apartment is only hers for a limited amount of time, finds a new place to stay, a room in the house of Frau Dr. Heller.
Section 7 (Hide and Seek): Marjane starts having trouble with Frau Dr. Heller, about the doctor's untidy dog. Marjane's boyfriend Enrique invites her to a party, and, although it's not what she expects, she has fun. She meets Enrique's friend Ingrid, and, when she wakes up in the morning with Enrique not next to her, jumps to the conclusion that he is in love with Ingrid, but, later that day, he reveals to Marjane that he is, in fact, gay. Marjane is feeling confused, and has a long talk with her physics teacher. She decides that she wants a physical relationship, and, after failing miserably with the boy she likes, begins getting farther and farther into drugs. She soon meets Markus, a student at her school, and falls in love with him, but their relationship is frowned upon by both Markus's mother and Frau Dr. Heller. Marjane procures some drugs for Markus, and gains a reputation as a drug dealer.
Section 8 (The Croissant): Marjane is having trouble on her exams, so she calls and asks her mother to pray for her. In need of money, she ends up getting a job at a cafe. When the school year starts, she gets subtly told off by the principal for drug dealing. She stops, but ends up taking more and more of them herself, so much so that her boyfriend Markus begins to get fed up and it begins affecting her health. She begins to get involved with some of Markus's friends, and with protesting the new Austrian president, who Markus's friends tell her is a Nazi. Marjane prepares to go away to spend her birthday with a friend, and is distressed by Markus's nonchalant reaction. However, she ends up missing her train, and goes to Markus's house to celebrate her birthday with him, but discovers him cheating on her.
Section 9 (The Veil): Marjane falls apart over her breakup with Markus, and, when she is accused of stealing Frau Dr. Heller's brooch, gets fed up and leaves. She spends the day on a park bench, and reflects upon how cruel Markus was to her. She soon discovers that she has nowhere to go and ends up living on the street for over two months, where she contracts severe bronchitis and ends up in the hospital. When she recovers, she remembers her mother telling her that a friend in Vienna that Marjane stayed with when she first got there owes her some money. She goes to pick it up, and discovers that her parents have been desperately trying to contact her for the two months she spent on the streets. She arranges with her parents to go back to Iran.
- Marjane (main character): Marjane is a strong girl, who follows in her parents' foot steps. She strongly believes in fighting for what you believe in. Sometimes her actions seem rebellious, and they get her into trouble, but this doesn't change her feelings or ambitions.
- Mrs. Satrapi or Taji (Marjane's mother): Taji is a passionate woman, who is upset with the way things are going in Iran, including the elimination of personal freedoms, and violent attacks on innocent people. She actively takes part in her local government by attending many protests.
- Mr. Satrapi or Ebi (Marjane's father): He also takes part in many political protests with Taji. He takes photographs of riots, which was illegal, and very dangerous, if you got caught.
- Marjane's Grandmother: Marjane's Grandmother develops a close relationship with Marjane. She helps comfort Marjane when her father doesn't return from a riot. She enjoys telling Marjane stories of her past, and Marjane's Grandfather.
- Uncle Anoosh: He is a hero in Marjane's eyes. He went to the U.S.S.R. to get married, later he got a divorce. Was imprisoned for nine years after an attempt to re-enter Iran.
- Kaveh: One of Marjane's childhood friend that eventually left for America.
- Siamak and Mohsen: Two friends of Marjane's family who are freed political prisoners. Both were beaten and tortured in prison. They are known as heroes.
- Mehridia: The maid of Marjane's house. She became friends with Marjane during her childhood. She had a secret relationship with the neighbor boy. She was illiterate, so she had Marjane write love letters to the neighbor boy for her.
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The graphic novels were generally well-received in Western countries following its release. For example, TIME included the first part in its "Best Comix of 2003" list. Andrew Arnold of TIME described the Persepolis as "sometimes funny and sometimes sad but always sincere and revealing." Kristin Anderson of The Oxonian Review of Books of Balliol College, University of Oxford said "While Persepolis’ feistiness and creativity pay tribute as much to Satrapi herself as to contemporary Iran, if her aim is to humanise her homeland, this amiable, sardonic and very candid memoir couldn’t do a better job."
In a critical article published in the academic journal Comparative American Studies titled 'Reading Azar Nafisi in Tehran', University of Tehran literature professor Seyyed Mohammad Marandi points out that in Persepolis representation is regularly interwoven with other aims and projections, which militate against accuracy. He states that the book and movie are the works of one who has 'Westernized' her outlook. He goes on to say that Satrapi, like Azar Nafisi, constantly confirms what orientalist representations have regularly claimed: the backwardness and inferiority of Muslims and Islam. The works, he states, have produced gross misrepresentations of Iranian society and Islam and quotes and references are used which are inaccurate, misleading, or even wholly invented.